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Innovative solutions in the treatment of Keratoconus.


Dr. Lam is a specialized ophthalmologist and offers the full spectrum of corneal transplantation services, including the latest transplantation techniques


Innovative options and emerging treatments.


Dr. Rabinovitch has 20 years experience in treating keratoconus and cornea patients with Intacs and cross-linking.

Collagen Cross-Linking

Cross-Linking: Overview

Collagen cross-linking (CXL) is a non-invasive procedure that strengthens the corneal tissue to stop it from bulging. This is the only treatment to stop the ectatic changes of keratoconus. Eye drops containing riboflavin (vitamin B2) are applied to the cornea and then activated by ultraviolet light. This strengthens collagen fibers within the cornea, making it more rigid and able to resist weakening and bulging. Available treatments include Standard or Avedro KXL System.

Suggested Management

  • Less than 30 years old – recommend CXL
  • Between 30 to 40 years old – recommend CXL, unless there is valid documentation of stability
  • Over 40 years old – recommend CXL if there is evidence of progression

Contact us at North Toronto Eye Care today to schedule a consultation. If you’d like to learn more about corneal collagen cross-linking, please click here!

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Main Line: 416-748-2020

Cataract, Pterygium, Cornea Surgery: or Ashanna at Ext 111

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